CChIPS 2015-2016 Research Portfolio

Dynamic Top Tether Loads in Various Anchor Locations in Side Impacts

Principal Investigator: Yun Seok Kang, PhD, The Ohio State University

Lower Anchors and Tethers for Children (LATCH) standardize the method to attach CRS to vehicles without using a seat belt. When properly used, the LATCH system usually protects the child from injuries in MVCs. It has been reported that the top tether has excellent advantages for injury prevention when properly used as compared with the same condition without the top tether attached. However, effectiveness of different top tether locations on dynamics loads of the top tether in side impacts has not been well understood. The objective of this study is to provide information that will allow CRS and vehicle engineers to understand the influence of the top tether locations on dynamic loads of the tether in both near and far side impacts.

Evaluation of Side Impacts with a Frontal Component for Children in CRS (Multiple Year)

Principal Investigator: Kristy Arbogast, PhD, The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia

This project quantifies kinematics and injury metrics for 3 year old anthropomorphic test device (ATD) in oblique side impacts with a focus on assessing the potential for head injury, thus fueling understanding of head injury mechanisms for rear, center-seated occupants. This project, with its focus on an understudied area, will assess the need to prioritize future research and development efforts for car restraint system (CRS) manufacturers in the center or far side test mode and will provide valuable response data in diverse impact conditions using the new Q3s ATD as industry builds its fund of knowledge about the performance of this ATD.

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Compatibility of Belt-positioning Boosters in Vehicles

Principal InvestigatorJulie Bing, MS, The Ohio State University

The broad objective of this research is to increase belt-positioning booster usage for children who are not yet large enough for adult seat belts. This study aims to quantify common compatibility issues which may be prompting poor usage rates of belt-positioning boosters, highlight the strengths and weaknesses of booster compatibility in the market today, and provide benchmark values for manufacturers to reference during design decisions.

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Evaluation of Interaction of Inflatable Seat Belts with CRS Installed in Aircraft Seats in Oblique Impact Sled Tests

Principal InvestigatorAditya Belwadi, PhD, The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia

The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has standards and regulations that are intended to protect aircraft occupants in the event of a crash, yet transport category passenger seats continue to evolve.  The latest development is seats oriented obliquely with respect to the aircraft centerline, which presents a novel loading environment that may permit significant flailing. In addition, the installation of inflatable seatbelts with these seats raises new challenges regarding their use with child seats -- there is no data outlining the interaction of inflatable seatbelts with child restraints. This new line of research should provide insight into the effectiveness of advanced restraint systems and aircraft seats for pediatric occupants and their ability to mitigate injury during various modes of impact. 

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Defining Anterior-Posterior Motion of the Shoulder Girdle

Principal Investigator: Laura Boucher, PhD, The Ohio State University

The overall goal of this project is to investigate the response of the shoulder girdle complex by non-invasively measuring clavicular displacement in 3-4 year old children. These data will be compared to a 3 year-old anthropomorphic test device (ATD) with the goal of providing recommendations for continued improvements in biofidelity of the shoulder, and thus the ability to improve thorax, cervical spine, and head responses in the ATD during frontal crash tests.

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Validation and Reliability Testing of a New Hybrid III 6-Year-Old Lower Extremity

Principal InvestigatorLaura Boucher, PhD, The Ohio State University

The long-term objective of this project is to create an instrument that will provide researches and engineers the ability to directly evaluate the crash response of the new 6-year-old Hybrid III ATD lower extremity (ATD-LE), providing information on injury mechanism and injury tolerance of the ankle and leg. Additionally, the ATD-LE may also help lead to advances in car restraint system (CRS) design and automotive crash testing. 

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Driving Analytics: Comparison of Teen and Adult Naturalistic Car-following Patterns

Principal Investigator: Helen Loeb, PhD, The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia

The goal of this study is to gain knowledge of teen drivers’ car-following and braking behaviors through the use of naturalistic driving databases. Findings will inform the development of Active Safety features such as Forward Collision Warning or Brake Assist systems that will address the driving and braking deficits of teens, the most vulnerable driving population.

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Effect of ATD Certification Specification Variance on Full-scale Sled Testing Performance

Principal Investigator: Matthew Maltese, PhD, The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia

This project enhances our understanding of the regulatory test (FMVSS 213) that governs car restraint system (CRS) performance. The long-term objective of this line of research is to increase the engineering knowledge-base available to industry and researchers on the variability associated with the regulatory test procedures used to certify pediatric safety systems, thereby decreasing the time to bring new technologies to market and thus reducing the cost to the consumer.

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Differences in Injury Outcomes in Children Versus Adults

Co-Principal Investigator: Ashley Weaver, PhD, Wake Forest University and Mark R. Zonfrillo, MD, MSCE, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (current affiliation: Hasbro Children’s Hospital/Brown University)

The Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) is considered the global system of choice for injury data collection and has become the basis for a number of derivative scales in use. However, the AIS is largely based on mortality risk, and there may be age-specific differences in injury outcomes. The specific aim of this study is to identify the specific crash-related injuries that result in varying levels of morbidity and mortality in children, when compared to adults. Understanding age-related differences in injury outcomes could inform future pediatric-specific modifications to the AIS.

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Quantifying CRS Fit in the Vehicle Seat Environment – Digitization Approach (Multiple Year Project)

Principal InvestigatorAditya Belwadi, PhD, The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia

This research study is responsive to the current needs of the industry and policy makers to keep pace with the evolution of child seats and their fit in the vehicle environment. The long-term objective is to gain insight into geometric dimensions of commercially available car restraint systems (CRS) and develop a virtual surrogate capable of being used in the design cycle of an automobile for virtual fitment and packaging. CRS manufacturers will use the surrogate to classify the size of future child restraints to simplify compatibility, and future consumers will be able use this system to match the size of the child restraint to the size of the vehicle occupant space.

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Quantifying CRS Fit in the Vehicle Seat Environment – Focusing on Incompatibilities

Co-Principal Investigators: Amanda Agnew, PhD, The Ohio State University and Julie Bing, MS, The Ohio State University

Wide varieties of child restraint systems (CRS) and vehicle interior designs suggest that not every CRS can fit seamlessly into every vehicle. Previous work has identified specific areas of incompatibility between a large portion of CRS and vehicles available on the US market. The long-term objective of this study was to improve fitment between CRS and vehicle models by establishing the frequency, severity, and consequences of various incompatibilities.

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Machine Learning Techniques: Online Prediction of Driving Behavior and Generation of Customized Feedback – (Multiple Year)

Principal Investigator: Yi-Ching Lee, PhD, The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia & Santiago Ontanon, PhD, Drexel University

The long-term objective of this study is to utilize state-of-the-art experimental and analytical techniques to create accurate models of teenage drivers’ behavior in order to inform the development and testing of new technology and training methodologies to improve teen driving and reduce risk. The broad objective is to examine the potential for the personalized feedback to improve driving behavior and reduce dangerous behavior, specifically in the context of speed management of teen drivers.

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Pediatric Brain Injury Assessment in Real World Crashes (Multiple Year Project)

Principal InvestigatorMatthew Maltese, PhD, The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia

Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is the leading pediatric injury in motor vehicle crashes, and an ever-expanding array of safety systems are being developed that have the potential to mitigate TBI. Human body computer models are under development and have the potential to guide the development of such safety systems, but pediatric human body models are limited. In this project, investigators are developing a family of pediatric finite element (FE) brain models. In prior years of this project, investigators developed an FE model of the 6 year old child and validated the robustness of this model through simulation of injury events. The current project will extend this capability to younger children by developing FE brain models of both the infant and toddler.

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About This Center

This Center is made possible through a grant from the National Science Foundation (NSF) which unites CHOP, University of Pennsylvania, and The Ohio State University researchers with R&D leaders in the automotive and insurance industries to translate research findings into tangible innovations in safety technology and public education programs.

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