CChIPS 2006-2007 Research Portfolio

State-of-the-art Science: An Update on Child and Adolescent Injury Research and Prevention

Principal Investigator: Yoganand Ghati, MS, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia


This project conducted a comprehensive literature search to identify and retrieve information to provide CChIPS members with a biannual, state-of- the-art summary of current research, outreach, legislature and media coverage on child and adolescent injury prevention.


Comparative Performance of the Hybrid III 3C and Q3 Dummy Necks in Simulated Frontal Crashes 

Principal Investigator: Matthew R. Maltese, MS, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia


At the time this research was conducted, two anthropometric test devices (ATDs) representing the 3-year-old human child existed --  the Q3 and the Hybrid III 3C. When used to evaluate safety systems, each yielded different neck injury criteria metrics. The project goal was to build on the quasistatic testing by examining the performance of the necks in a simulated frontal FMVSS No. 213 crash. The results of this research were used to determine how the two ATDs differed in their response and allowed for informed data-driven comment on contemporary rulemaking efforts to incorporate these dummies into CRS evaluation and vehicle crash test rating programs (NCAP).


Injury Mechanisms in Belt-restrained Children in Side Impact Crashes

Principal Investigator: Matthew R. Maltese, MS, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia


The research delineated injury mechanisms for children involved in side impact crashes and highlighted the differences and similarities between adult and child injury patterns. The research helped determine when adult safety system concepts can be applied to children and when they cannot. It also described the patterns and mechanisms of injuries, such as abdominal or upper extremity, or injuries to various organs experienced by belt-restrained children in side-impact crashes and compared injury patterns observed in belted children with those observed in belted adults in similar crash situations.


Accidental Head Injuries in Young Children: Integrated Epidemiological and Biomechanical Analysis

Principal Investigator: Susan Margulies, PhD, Dept. of Bioengineering, The University of Pennsylvania


This research was based on the hypothesis that accidental head injury outcomes are better for older children than infants due to biomechanical and developmental differences. A retrospective single-center cohort study and anthropomorphic surrogate experiments were conducted to correlate age-specific biomechanical factors and environmental circumstances associated with accidental head injury. The information garnered from this project helped CChIPS target high-priority opportunities to enhance child safety via effective public education and improved safety in automotive, home, and play environments.


Development of a Rear Facing Child Restraint System Finite Element Model

Principal Investigator: Rajiv Menon, PhD, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia

The objective of this study was to begin the process of building the database of child seats by developing a geometrically well-defined rear facing infant seat. Testing of the plastic material was conducted in accordance with ASTM D638-03 standards. A rigid body and finite element-based computational models were developed. The models were exercised in both MADYMO and LS-DYNA. Occupant responses in both models were also comparatively studied.


Understanding the Variation of Accelerations Experienced by Rear-seated Occupants

Principal Investigator: Rajiv Menon, PhD, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia


This study gathered acceleration data from the rear cross members of a sample of popular passenger cars, SUVs and minivans of model years ranging from 1980 to 2005 that have undergone NCAP testing. Analysis was conducted of the rear cross member acceleration data by model year of every sampled vehicle to determine the change in acceleration over the years. The effect of this variation in acceleration was quantified with the help of a MADYMO model. These results helped researchers understand and quantify the variation of these accelerations based on dummy performance.


Feasibility of Using CHOP's Practice-based Research Network (PBRN) as a Recruitment Tool

Principal Investigator: Teresa Senserrick, PhD, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia


The study tested the feasibility of using an electronic research network in primary care physician offices to recruit teenage drivers as research participants. A secondary goal was to develop a system for recruitment in other traffic injury prevention research projects. The study's broad long-term objective was to develop a system for providing consistent and current traffic injury prevention information through primary care physician offices.


Child Booster Seat use in China: A Focus Group Study

Principal Investigators: Flaura K. Winston, MD, PhD, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia and Joan Ozanne-Smith, MD, MBBS, MPH, Monash University, Australia


This study investigated the amount of knowledge relating to child restraint systems, specifically booster seats, that parents in Beijing, China possess. This information was then used to select and design interventions targeted toward parents in Beijing. These interventions were shown to parents in Fall 2007 and researchers collected the reactions and behavioral changes resulting from the programs. Booster seats were provided to enrolled parents, allowing for actual behavior changes to be monitored throughout the course of the study.


Extending Rear-facing Recommendations to Children Over Age One

Principal Investigator: Dawei Xie, PhD, The University of Pennsylvania

This study examined patterns of injury to children in rear-facing child restraint systems and forward-facing child restraint systems in order to provide evidence for the potential benefit of extending rear-facing recommendations to children over age one.

About This Center

This Center is made possible through a grant from the National Science Foundation (NSF) which unites CHOP, University of Pennsylvania, and The Ohio State University researchers with R&D leaders in the automotive and insurance industries to translate research findings into tangible innovations in safety technology and public education programs.

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